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The Constitution of India came into existence on 26th January 1950 with the replacement of the Government of India Act which was established in the year 1935. The Republic Day is celebrated to give the honor to the date when the Constitution of India came into effect.
On 26 November 1949, the Constitution of India was adopted by the Indian Constituent Assembly. And, it took around 2 months to bring this Constitution in power. This constituent was adopted with the help of the democratic government system and making the country, India an independent republic.
There is a reason why January 26 is chosen as the republic day because twenty years from the first republic day, that is in the year 1930, the British Regime offered the Dominion status and it was strongly opposed by the Indian National Congress. And on this day only, that is 26th of January, the Indian National Congress also put forward the Declaration of Indian Independence which was very famous in those time with the Hindi name for it which is Purna Swaraj.
The British ruled India for more than 150 years. And during this period, the country India had gone through massive destruction in terms of moral values, economical and many innocent people were killed in the British Raj. Many women were raped and small children were killed cruelly by the British. There were many political laws and regulations which favored the British and punished the people of India. In the name of laws and regulation, many farmers had to work on rent on their own land. Many farmers had to grow indigo on their land because if they opposed doing so, they were put in jail and weretortured very badly so that they could either accept to grow indigo or killed in the jail with hunger. And in those days it was completely legal that if any farmer opposed to growing indigo, then they had to face death. At that time, there was huge profit in the international market for indigo. The British Raj was one of the darkest time in the entire history of India. Before the British came to India, India was one of the richest countries in the world and during 1947, this country became one of the poorest country. The exploitation of India during the period of British was considered far more darker than in the period of the Mughals.
Many freedom fighters lost their lives in the pursuit of freeing their country India from the British. These people were freedom fighters and were also called Krantikari. There were around more that 8 lakhs Krantikaris in India, more than any other country in the world. Some of them are Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Mahatma Gandhi, Ram Prasad Bismil, Mangal Pandey, Rajendra Lahiri, Subhash Chandra Bose, Roshan Singh, Ashfaqulla khan, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Lal Bahadur Shastri and Dadabhai Naoroji. These freedom fighters not only changed the direction of the country India but also provided major contributions to free India from the British.
The freedom of the motherland was their only wish in life, when they were alive and even after death. And their wish came true on 15th August 1947 after the death of many freedom fighters. India got it’s freedom under the Indian independence movement in a very peaceful and non-violent way which was lead by Mahatama Gandhi. The freedom of the country came under the act, Indian Independence Act 1947, it is the act that partitioned British India into semi-independent polities under the British Empire. India is not the first country to be the British dominion states. Before India there were Newfoundland, Australia, South Africa , Sri Lanka and Canada.
India got independence as a constitutional monarchy and the head of the state was George VI and Earl Mountbatten was chosen as the governor general. During the independence, the country did not have it’s own constitution and its laws were based on the Government of India Act 1935. The Drafting Committee was appointed to make the constitution for the country. Dr. B R Ambedkar was chosen the chairman of this committee. The committee prepared the draft constitution and submitted to the Constituent Assembly on 4th November 1947. Within a period of 166 days, the Assembly met in sessions and were completely open to the public. And after preparing the constitution of India it was adopted after a period of two years, 11 months and 18 days. After many corrections and changes made in it and on 24th of January 1950, the 308 members of the Constitutional Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document, one in English and one in Hindi. Two days after this, that is on 26th of January 1950, this constitution and laws were applied to the entire nation. Dr. Rajendra Prasad’s was selected to be the first President of the Indian Union. This Constituent Assembly had became the Parliament of India on January 26th 1950. And from then on, this date is celebrated as the Republic Day in India.
The first speech was given by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru welcoming the freedom of India. And India got it’s freedom in the mid-night of 15th August. The historic words of Jawaharlal Nehru in the starting of the speech were “Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge , not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom”.
Each year Republic Day is celebrated in each schools, colleges in every cities, and in every states of India. In schools and colleges,students dance and enact plays based on our freedom fighters and how they fought with the most powerful government at that time, British government. They had sacrificed so much to gain freedom for the country that they did not even care for their own lives and put their lives at stake for their motherland. Such plays in schools and colleges motivate and inspire students to be of some help to the nation. The dialogues between the Krantikaris and the British depicted in these plays leave a deep impact on the minds of the students and they get to realize how great our freedom fighters were and how great their desire was to achieve freedom of our country.For example, the conversation between Chandra Shekhar Azad and a Judge when he was caught by the police and put in front of a magistrate for hearing. At that time Azad was only 14 years of age. And, when this boy Azad and Judge were infront of each other, the following conversation took place.
JUDGE: Bachhe, tumhaara naam kya hai? (Boy, What is your name?)BOY: AZADJUDGE: Baap ka naam. (Name of your father?)BOY: Swatantrata. (Freedom)JUDGE: Kaha rahte ho (Where do you live?)BOY: Jailkhaana (Prison.)
Then after hearing all this the judge was silent for a while. Then he sentenced Chandra Shekhar to be punished with 15 lashes on his bare back. Chandra Shekhar kept shouting ‘Bharat Mata Ki Jai’ as each lash from the whip ripped through his flesh until his young blood became visible. The original name of this boy was Chandra Shekhar Tiwari and after this incident the name “AZAD” got attached to Chandra Shekhar. And from then the name ‘Chandra Shekhar Azad’ became well known.
Conducting such plays in schools and collegesmake the students aware about the courage and bravery of the great freedom fighter, Chandra Shekhar Azad. Not only this, there are also different programs that hare held on this day. In the capital of India, New Delhi, the flag of the nation gets unfurled and the 21 gun salute happens to show respect for the freedom fighters and soldiers who had lost there lives in protecting their motherland. At the beginning of this day, the president visits Amar Jawan Jyoti and pays the homage for their sacrifices. The National Bravery Award was also distributed to young children who has shown bravery in dangerous situations and protected the lives of others. To teach many people the value of courage and valour, the Gallantry awards is also awarded to those who had shown courage despite of the fear of death. The Republic Day is the most important day for the nation. And therefore the direction of the nation is also determined by this day by inviting the Chief Guest, usually a head of the government or state from a friendly country. Such activities paves the way towards improved relationship between countries and also opens different windows of opportunities for the youth of India. The Republic Day is held with the heads of 10 South East Asian countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Singapore. They are invited as Chief Guests in India to celebrate Republic Day which will improve foreign relationships.
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